GPU Computing vs CPU Computing: Why GPUs Are Faster for Some Tasks

GPU Computing vs CPU Computing

If you are a tech enthusiast, gamer, or content creator, you probably know that GPUs are faster than CPUs at many tasks. But do you know why? What makes a graphics card so powerful and efficient compared to a computer processor? And how can you use GPU computing to your advantage? In this article, we will answer these questions and more. We will explain the main differences between GPU Computing vs CPU Computing starting from cores, how parallel processing works in GPUs, and what factors affect the performance of both processors. 

We will also show you some examples of tasks that are better suited for GPU computing, and how you can use them to speed up your work.

So let’s dive right in!

What Is a CPU?

A CPU, or central processing unit, is the most important processor in a given computer. It’s the primary hub (or “brain”), and it processes the instructions that come from programs, the operating system, or other components in your PC. 

It can perform complex calculations, logic operations, and decision-making. It can also switch between different tasks rapidly, which is important for multitasking and responsiveness.

A CPU has a few cores (usually between 4 to 64) that can handle different tasks at the same time. Each core has its own cache memory that stores frequently used data for faster access. 


CPU also has a clock speed that measures how many instructions it can process in any given second, measured in gigahertz (GHz). For example, a CPU with a clock speed of 3.0 GHz can process 3 billion instructions each second.

CPU companies design CPUs to handle a wide range of tasks quickly and efficiently. However, it’s not very good at performing the same task over and over again on a large amount of data. 

Let’s say, if you want to apply a color correction to a video, a CPU would have to process each pixel one by one, which would take a lot of time and resources. For these kinds of tasks, specialized coprocessors such as graphics processing units (GPUs) are more suitable.

What Is a GPU?

A GPU, or graphics processing unit, is a specialized electronic circuit that excels at rendering graphics and images on your screen. 

It’s also called a graphics card or video card. A GPU has thousands of smaller and simpler cores (usually hundreds to thousands) that can work together in parallel to process large amounts of data simultaneously.

A GPU is designed to handle specific tasks that require high throughput and parallelism


It can perform floating-point arithmetic, which is essential for rendering polygons and textures in 3D graphics. It can also handle matrix operations, which are common in machine learning and linear algebra.

However, a GPU is not very good at performing different tasks that require sequential processing or low latency

For example, if you want to open a file or load a website, a GPU would have to wait for the CPU to send the instructions and data, which would slow down the process.

CPU vs GPU: What’s the Difference?

The main difference between CPU and GPU cores is that CPU cores are more powerful and versatile, while GPU cores are more simple and specialized. In this case, more isn’t necessarily better always!

CPU cores can handle complex logic and branching operations, while GPU cores can only perform basic arithmetic operations. However, GPU cores can perform these operations much faster and more efficiently than CPU cores.

Another difference between CPU and GPU cores is that CPU cores can only run one thread (a sequence of instructions) at a time, while GPU cores can run multiple threads at once. This means that a GPU can process more data in parallel than a CPU. It’s called parallel processing or parallelism.

CPU vs GPU Differences
CPU vs GPU Differences | source

To illustrate this difference, let’s use an analogy. Imagine that you have to paint a large wall with different colors. You have two options: use a small but precise brush (CPU) or use a large but coarse spray (GPU).

If you use a small brush, you can paint any detail and pattern you want, but it will take you a long time to finish the whole wall. If you use the large spray, you can cover the wall much faster, but you will have less control over the quality and accuracy of the painting.

This is similar to how CPU and GPU cores work. A CPU core can handle any task with high precision and flexibility, but it will take longer to process large amounts of data. A GPU core can handle simple tasks with high speed and efficiency, but it will have less control over the complexity and variability of the data.

Why Is GPU Computing Faster Than CPU Computing for Some Tasks?

In short – The main reason why GPU computing is faster than CPU computing for some tasks is that GPUs can leverage their massive parallelism to process more data in less time. GPUs can also share RAM with other devices, which reduces the need for data transfer and memory allocation.

GPU vs CPU cores

Let’s say you want to apply a filter to an image that has 10 million pixels

A CPU with 8 cores would have to process each pixel one by one in 8 batches, which would take about 1.25 million cycles. A GPU with 10 thousand cores would be able to process each pixel in one batch, which would take only 10 cycles.

Another example is machine learning, which involves training models on large datasets using complex algorithms. 

A CPU with 8 cores would have to perform millions of calculations sequentially on each data point, which would take hours or days. A GPU with 10 thousand cores would be able to perform millions of calculations in parallel on each data point, which would take minutes or seconds.

Some Other Factors That Affect the Performance of CPU and GPU

Besides the number of cores and the parallel processing ability, there are other factors that affect the performance of the CPU and GPU. 

These factors include:

  • Clock frequency: The speed at which a processor can execute instructions. Measured in hertz (Hz) or gigahertz (GHz). Higher clock frequency means faster performance.
  • Memory bandwidth: The amount of data that a processor can transfer to and from its memory. Measured in bytes per second (B/s) or gigabytes per second (GB/s). Higher memory bandwidth means faster performance.
  • Cache size: The amount of memory that a processor can store temporarily for faster access. Measured in bytes (B) or megabytes (MB). A higher cache size means faster performance.
  • Instruction set: The set of commands that a processor can understand and execute. Different instruction sets have different capabilities and efficiency. For example, SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) is an instruction set that allows a processor to perform the same operation on multiple data elements at once. This is useful for parallel processing.
GPU vs CPU for image processing
GPU vs CPU for image processing | Source

These factors vary depending on the type and model of the CPU and GPU. 

Generally speaking, CPUs have a higher clock frequency, lower memory bandwidth, a larger cache size, and more complex instruction sets than GPUs. GPUs have a lower clock frequency, higher memory bandwidth, a smaller cache size, and simpler instruction sets than CPUs.

These differences affect the performance of the CPU and GPU in different ways. 

A CPU with a high clock frequency can execute instructions faster than a GPU with a low clock frequency, but a GPU with a high memory bandwidth can transfer data faster than a CPU with a low memory bandwidth.

Therefore, the performance of the CPU and GPU depends on the nature and requirements of the task. Some tasks are more suitable for CPU computing, while others are more suitable for GPU computing.

Examples of Tasks That Are Better Suited for GPU Computing

GPU computing is faster than CPU computing for tasks that involve large amounts of data that can be processed in parallel using simple arithmetic operations. 

These tasks include:

  • Rendering: The process of generating an image from a 3D model using lighting, shading, textures, and other effects. Rendering requires calculating the color and brightness of each pixel in the image based on the position and properties of the 3D model and the light sources. This can be done in parallel using GPU cores.
GPU vs CPU performance
Image Source: Bizon Tech
  • Video editing: The process of manipulating video clips by applying filters, transitions, effects, and other modifications. Video editing requires processing each frame of the video separately based on the desired output. This can be done in parallel using GPU cores.
  • Machine learning: The process of creating and training algorithms that can learn from data and make predictions or decisions. Machine learning requires performing mathematical operations on large matrices or tensors of data to adjust the parameters of the algorithm. This can be done in parallel using GPU cores.

Here are some examples of software applications that use GPU computing for these tasks:

  • Blender: A free and open-source 3D creation suite that supports rendering, animation, modeling, sculpting, simulation, video editing, and more. Blender uses GPU computing to speed up rendering and simulation tasks.
  • Adobe Premiere Pro: A professional video editing software that supports editing, color correction, audio mixing, motion graphics, and more. Adobe Premiere Pro uses GPU computing to accelerate effects, transitions, rendering, and playback tasks.
  • TensorFlow: A free and open-source platform for machine learning that supports creating, training, deploying, and running neural networks and other algorithms. TensorFlow uses GPU computing to accelerate matrix operations and gradient calculations.

Related Post: Free Video Editing Software for Mac Users

How to Use GPU Computing for Your Own Projects

If you want to use GPU computing for your own projects, you will need:

A Compatible GPU

A graphics card that supports GPU computing. You can check the specifications of your graphics card or use online tools like GPU Monkey to compare different models.

A Compatible Driver

A software program that allows your operating system to communicate with your graphics card. You can download the latest driver from your graphics card manufacturer’s website or use online tools like Driver Easy to update your driver automatically.

Related Post: The Importance of GPU Support Brackets

Once you have these components ready, you can enable GPU computing in your software settings or preferences. Depending on your software, you may have to select your graphics card as the preferred device for rendering or processing tasks.

You may also have to adjust some parameters or options to optimize your GPU performance. You can also monitor your GPU usage and temperature using tools like MSI Afterburner or HWMonitor. This will help you avoid overheating or overloading your graphics card.

Well, this is a broad technical topic that requires a separate step-by-step guide, so we’re not going to go into the depth of this today!

I hope you found this article informative and engaging. If you have any questions or feedback, feel free to leave a comment below. Thanks for reading!

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some frequently asked questions about GPU computing and their answers-

What is the difference between integrated and discrete GPUs?

Answer: Integrated GPUs are built into the CPU or the motherboard and share the same memory and resources. Discrete GPUs are separate cards that have their own memory and resources. Discrete GPUs are usually more powerful and expensive than integrated GPUs.

How do I know if my computer has a GPU or not?

Answer: You can check your computer’s specifications or use a tool like GPU-Z to find out what kind of GPU you have. You can also look at the back of your computer and see if there is a port for connecting a monitor to the GPU.

How do I upgrade my GPU or get a new one?

Answer: If you have a desktop computer, you can usually replace your GPU by opening the case and installing a new card in the appropriate slot. You may need to check the compatibility, power requirements, and dimensions of the new GPU before buying it. If you have a laptop computer, you may not be able to upgrade your GPU unless it has a removable or external GPU option. You may need to buy a new laptop with a better GPU instead.

Can I use my GPU for computing tasks other than graphics?

Answer: Yes, you can use your GPU for computing tasks other than graphics. This is known as GPU computing or General-Purpose Computing on GPUs (GPGPU). The major GPU makers (NVIDIA and AMD) use special programming languages and architecture to allow users access to GPGPU features. In the case of Nvidia, that’s CUDA or Compute Unified Device Architecture. This is why you’ll see their GPU processors referred to as CUDA cores. Since CUDA is proprietary, competing GPU makers such as AMD can’t use it. Instead, AMD’s GPUs make use of OpenCL or Open Computing Language.

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Saiful Emon

Emon is a tech enthusiast who loves to explore and write about the latest gadgets and innovations. Now he uses his passion and knowledge to cover topics like artificial intelligence, gaming, wearables, and the potential of computers. When he is not writing, he enjoys playing video games, watching sci-fi movies, and discovering new places.