CSM (Compatibility Support Module) and UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) are two different bootloaders that handle the booting process differently. UEFI is newer and offers more security, faster boot times, and support for modern hardware/OSs. CSM provides backward compatibility for older operating systems and hardware.
Booting up a computer can seem like magic – you press the power button and suddenly everything springs to life! But behind the scenes, your computer is going through a complex process of starting up all the hardware and loading the operating system. This is handled by the bootloader.
The bootloader acts like a conductor, initializing hardware, checking memory, and finally handing control over to the operating system kernel. For many years, the standard bootloader was the BIOS. But starting around 2005, a new specification called UEFI began replacing BIOS.
This introduced a clash between newer UEFI and legacy BIOS systems. To allow both to operate, motherboard manufacturers included a Compatibility Support Module (CSM) along with UEFI. This enabled backward compatibility with older OSs while taking advantage of UEFI.
So when you buy a new PC or motherboard today, it likely supports both CSM and UEFI boot modes. But which one should you use? Let’s compare CSM vs UEFI to see the differences and help decide which boot method is right for your system.
What is CSM Booting?
CSM (Compatibility Support Module) is an implementation of a legacy BIOS boot environment within UEFI firmware. It allows older operating systems and hardware that rely on BIOS to work with new UEFI motherboards.
Here are some key characteristics of CSM booting:
- Provides compatibility for operating systems designed for BIOS only, like Windows 7 and earlier versions
- Uses the traditional VGA BIOS to initialize graphics cards
- Supports older storage devices like IDE/ATA hard drives and optical drives
- Limited to boot devices described in the legacy MBR partition table
- Slower boot process due to POST (Power On Self Test) routines
CSM uses the same boot process as a legacy BIOS:
- Power on and run the POST
- Initialize PCI bus and detect devices
- Load MBR (Master Boot Record)
- Identify bootable drive
- Load sector 1 from bootable drive into memory and execute bootloader code
- Bootloader loads OS kernel
This older approach results in slower boot times but allows compatibility with systems that pre-date UEFI.
What is UEFI Booting?
UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) is a modern replacement for legacy BIOS firmware. It was designed to address limitations of BIOS and support newer hardware and operating systems.
Key features of UEFI booting include:
- Supports modern hardware like 64-bit processors, large hard drives, and graphics cards
- Uses GPT partitioning instead of MBR for handling large drives
- Provides faster boot times by eliminating some BIOS POST checks
- Offers Secure Boot for verifying bootloaders and OS kernels
- Built-in user interface for firmware settings and diagnostics
- Supports networking, allowing PXE and netboot capabilities
The UEFI boot process looks like this:
- Power on and initialize hardware
- UEFI firmware validates boot entries
- Select boot entry and launch EFI bootloader
- Bootloader reads partition information from GPT
- Load bootloader .EFI file from EFI system partition
- EFI file launches operating system kernel
By reducing unnecessary POST checks and using more efficient modern technologies, UEFI provides a streamlined and secure boot process.
CSM vs UEFI Feature Comparison
|Limited to BIOS-era hardware
|Supports modern 64-bit processors, large hard drives, high-resolution graphics
|MBR only, 2 TB limit per drive
|GPT partitioning, no disk size limits
|Slower due to POST, multiple stages
|Optimized boot, fewer stages
|Typically 30+ seconds
|Under 10 seconds possible
|Minimal boot verification
|Secure Boot validates bootloaders
|Limited BIOS options via Setup Utility
|Extensive firmware configuration through UEFI
|Operating System Compatibility
|All Windows versions, Linux, OS X
|Windows 8.1+, modern Linux, and OS X
As you can see, UEFI offers substantial improvements in features and capabilities compared to legacy BIOS and CSM. But it comes at the cost of dropping support for older operating systems and hardware.
Should I Use CSM or UEFI Boot?
With most modern PCs and motherboards supporting both CSM and UEFI boot modes, which option should you choose?
- If you have an older PC or run older operating systems like Windows 7 or earlier, stick with CSM boot. It will provide the best compatibility.
- For newer systems running Windows 8.1+, Linux, or OS X, use UEFI boot. It enables faster performance and takes advantage of all your hardware’s capabilities.
- If you’re building a new system with modern components, definitely choose UEFI over CSM. UEFI is designed to handle the latest hardware and provides a better experience.
- In some cases, you may want or need to switch between the two modes. Most motherboards let you pick CSM or UEFI for each boot.
- If dual-booting Linux/Windows, some Linux distros may require CSM for installation but can boot in UEFI mode afterward.
- For running Windows 11, UEFI with Secure Boot enabled is required. So CSM by itself will not be enough.
Overall, UEFI is the preferred boot method for modern systems. But CSM still serves an important role by enabling backward compatibility with BIOS-based operating systems and hardware. This ensures older devices and OS installations continue to work on new PCs.
Deep Dive into CSM and UEFI
Now that we’ve compared their key features, let’s take a deeper look under the hood at how CSM and UEFI work and some of the technical details that set them apart.
CSM Boot Process
When booting in CSM mode, the firmware initializes hardware just like a legacy BIOS would:
- Power On Self Test (POST) – Performs basic system checks like CPU, RAM, PCI devices
- Initialize VGA BIOS – Activates video card to set graphics modes
- Detect boot device – Checks disks and determines boot priority order
- Load MBR – Reads the Master Boot Record from boot disk
- Execute bootloader – Transfers control to bootloader code in MBR
- Bootloader – Initial stage that loads the OS kernel and drivers
This follows the standard BIOS booting steps used for decades. The POST and multiple stages make for a slow process.
And since CSM uses the traditional PC BIOS disk partitioning scheme, drives are limited to 2 TB and can only have four primary partitions.
The advantage is complete hardware and software compatibility with legacy BIOS systems. But CSM fails to leverage any modern UEFI optimizations.
UEFI Boot Process
With UEFI boot, you get a streamlined process optimized for speed:
- Initialize hardware – Minimum setup of CPU, memory, and chipset
- Load UEFI drivers – Hardware-specific drivers load
- UEFI validation – Check boot entries against secure key database
- Read GPT – GUID Partition Table describes available boot partitions
- Launch EFI bootloader – Boot manager executes UEFI bootloader .EFI file
- EFI bootloader – Initial program loaded by firmware, loads OS kernel
By removing unnecessary POST checks and using technologies like GPT partitioning, UEFI boots in a fraction of the time of CSM.
UEFI also offers security through features like Secure Boot. It checks that all boot files are signed by a trusted source before loading them, preventing malicious bootkits.
The tradeoff is loss of support for operating systems and hardware that lack UEFI drivers and firmware interfaces.
CSM vs UEFI: Operating System Support
One of the biggest factors in choosing between CSM and UEFI boot is which operating systems you need to run:
- Windows – Versions 7 and earlier require CSM. Windows 8.1+ support UEFI and Secure Boot.
- Linux – Most modern distros work with UEFI. Some may need CSM for installation only.
- OS X – UEFI boot required on Macs 2013 and later. Older Macs need CSM.
- Other – FreeBSD, Chrome OS, Solaris, etc. have UEFI support on x86 systems.
So if you dual-boot Windows 7 and 10 for example, you’ll need to stick with CSM to accommodate Windows 7. Or if running Linux on older Macs, CSM would be used as well.
Converting from CSM to UEFI
If you have an existing OS install using CSM boot, switching to UEFI requires a few steps:
- Backup data and confirm UEFI firmware settings support OS
- Make a UEFI install medium (USB or DVD)
- Boot fresh OS install in UEFI mode and install to GPT partitioned drive
- Copy data over from old CSM system disk
Windows and most Linux distros can handle this process automatically. But it requires starting fresh with a new OS install.
Going the other direction from UEFI to CSM requires similar steps but has more limitations on older BIOS hardware.
CSM vs UEFI: Which Should You Use?
With modern motherboards supporting both CSM and UEFI boot modes, which option is right for your PC?
- Use CSM boot if:
- You have Windows 7 or older installed
- Running Linux distro that only supports BIOS booting
- Need to dual-boot with legacy Windows
- Have old BIOS-era hardware that lacks UEFI drivers
- Use UEFI boot if:
- You have a Windows 8.1 or 10 install
- Running Linux distro with UEFI support
- Using OS X/Mac hardware made in 2013 or later
- Want faster boot times and better security
- Have all modern PC components
For most users with relatively new systems, UEFI booting is recommended for the best experience, compatibility, and performance. But anyone still running older operating systems or hardware should stick with CSM/BIOS mode to ensure legacy device and OS support.
Dual-boot systems may need to use CSM to accommodate the oldest OS. Thankfully motherboards make it easy to choose your boot mode for each startup.
So consider both your hardware and what OSs you need to run. With that knowledge, you can pick between the compatibility of CSM and the speed/security of UEFI. Then you can enjoy all your systems have to offer!